Definition of uniform resource identifier


A member of the universal set of names in registered Namespaces and addresses. URI is used to locate available web resources, including HTML documents, images, video clips, and programs.

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How to identify and prevent attacks
You can detect common attacks as follows: 1. Clear statistics on the packets sent to the CPU. 2. Wait for one minute and check the number of packets sent to the CPU and discarded protocol packets, such as ICMP, TTL, Expired, SSH, and FTP. If there are a lot of packets sent to the CPU or discarded, an attack, such as ICMP attack, TTL Expired attack, SSH attack, or FTP attack, may occur. 3. Find out the attack source through IP source trail or attack source tracing. After locating the attack source, run the cpu-defend policy command to configure the blacklist to prevent the packets from this source entering the control plane. Alternatively, you can configure the penalty action in auto-defend to discard attack packets. Additionally, the device can restrict the rate of ICMP packets from the source, or use traffic policy to discard SSH and FTP attack packets.

What are user identifiers
User identifiers include device IDs and user IDs. A device ID is the ID of a device used by users. The devices can be a plain old telephone service (POTS) phone or a user agent device, such as IP phones and software. A user ID is a unique number assigned to a user. A user ID is the owner of a device ID, and indicates a user's identity. A user ID and a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server domain constitute a URL. A device ID can belong to multiple user IDs. Each user has a fixed user identifier, which is bound to a unique device ID. Usually, a user identifier is the global number or long code for the user. Users can dial long codes to call each other, which is the common dial-up mode. Internal numbers or private numbers are provided to users inside the same group, such as an enterprise, company, group organization, school, or hotel. Users in the same group can dial each other's short numbers or private numbers.

Definition of Kafka
Kafka is a distributed, partitioned, and replicated message publishing and subscription system that provides features similar to the Java Message Service (JMS). Kafka features message persistence, high throughput, distribution, multi-client support, and real-time processing, and applies to online and offline message consumption. It is ideal for Internet service data collection scenarios, such as conventional data collection, active website tracing, aggregation of operation data in statistics systems (monitoring data), and log collection.

Definition of Tomcat
Tomcat is a free-of-charge, lightweight, open source web application server developed by Apache Software Foundation, Sun and other companies, and individuals. Gaining support from Sun, Tomcat complies with the latest Servlet and JavaServer Page (JSP) specifications. It features advanced technology, stable performance, and good scalability, and occupies a small number of system resources during running. As a result, Tomcat applies to small- and medium-sized systems and scenarios with a few concurrent users. An HTTP server embedded in Tomcat enables Tomcat to work as a web server. It provides a configuration management tool and supports XML configuration files. Tomcat is different from the Apache web server, which is an HTTP server using C language.

Definition of Flume
Flume is a distributed, highly reliable, and HA massive log aggregation system. It supports custom data transmitters for data collection. Flume also processes data roughly and writes data to customizable receivers.

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