Why cannot STAs associate with an AP when WPA-PSK authentication is used

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The possible causes are as follows:
- The AC's interface connecting to the switch or AP is not added to service VLANs. During the authentication, keys need to be exchanged through the service channel; therefore, the interfaces must be added to service VLANs.
- The STA does not support WPA2-PSK. For example, the computer runs an early version of Windows XP without patches installed, the computer may not support WPA2-PSK. Patches need to be installed on the computer.

Other related questions:
Why cannot a STA associate with an AP when the authentication mode is WPA/WAP2-PSK and the WLAN configuration is correct
802.1x authentication is not enabled globally. To address this problem, run the dot1x enable command in the system view to enable global 802.1x authentication.

Why cannot STAs associate with an AP when WEP authentication is used
The possible causes are as follows: - No WEP SSID is added to the STA. Many STAs associate with WEP SSIDs by using encryption without authentication. However, the AP uses both authentication and encryption. Therefore, the STA cannot associate with the SSID. The SSID must be manually configured on the STA. At last, set the encryption type to share mode. - The key index configured on the AP is different from the key index on the STA. By default, the key index of an AP is 0 (ranging from 0 to 3), and the key index of STA is 1 (ranging from 1 to 4). Key index 0 on the AP matches key index 1 on the STA.

The AR router uses WPA/WAP2-PSK authentication and WLAN is configured successfully but the wireless device cannot associate with an AP and fails to access the network
Run the dot1x enable command to enable 802.1x authentication globally.

STAs are associated with other APs in multi-AP scenarios
In multi-AP scenarios, STAs may be associated with other APs when a long Beacon frame transmission interval is set. STAs obtain information about peripheral WLANs in either of the following ways: - Passive scan: STAs scan Beacon frames sent by surrounding APs to obtain WLAN information. - Active scan: STAs actively send Probe Request frames and receive Probe Response frames to obtain wireless signals. STA can actively or passively scan surrounding WLANs. When a STA passively scans WLANs and APs are densely deployed, the STA can receive Beacon frames from another AP but not the nearest AP, and perform association.

Why cannot a STA associate with an AP when the radio type is set to pure 802.11n and the encryption mode is set to TKIP
TKIP is insecure, so 802.11n does not support TKIP encryption.

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