Considerations for handling bit errors in SDH long-haul transmission

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Considerations for handling bit errors in SDH long-haul transmission:
1. Whether dispersion compensation is proper.
2. Whether non-linear effects exist due to excessively high incident optical power.
3. Whether the signal-to-noise ratio is excessively low.
4. Whether the optical board is faulty.
5. Whether the quality of the optical line deteriorates.

Other related questions:
Definition of SDH bit error performance
Definitions of SDH bit error performance: Background block error (BBE): an errored block not occurring as a part of an SES. Errored second (ES): Errored bit second: interval of 1 second during which a given digital signal is received with one or more errored bits according to G.821. Errored block second: interval of 1 second during which a given digital signal is received with one or more errored blocks according to G0.826. Errored second: errored bit second and errored block second. Severely errored second (SES): Severely errored bit second: interval of 1 second during which a given digital signal is received with an error bit ratio greater than 1 x 10-3 according to G.821 Severely errored block second: interval of 1 second during which 30% or more errored blocks exist or at least one defect exists according to G.826. Unavailable second (UAS): Unavailable second: An unavailable period starts from the first second of 10 consecutive SES events. These 10 seconds are considered as a part of the unavailable seconds. A new available period starts from the first second of 10 consecutive non-SES events. These 10 seconds are considered as a part of the available seconds. Consecutive severely errored second (CSES): Consecutive severely errored second: 2 to 9 consecutive SES events.

Whether ND2 can regenerate 10G signals over OTN equipment during long-haul transmission
Sure. ND2 can implement electrical regeneration. It can shape and regenerate signals.

Service bit errors
Question: What may cause service bit errors? Analysis: None Root cause: None Answer: 1. Unreasonable dispersion compensation (not enough or too much); 2. Too high or too low incident optical power; 3. Performance deterioration of the transmit laser on the OTU board at the transmit end; 4. Severely contaminated pigtail connectors; 5. Changes in fiber attenuation; 6. Performance deterioration of the receive laser on the OTU board at the receive end. Suggestion and conclusion: None

Whether NO2 can regenerate 10G signals over OTN equipment during long-haul transmission
Sure. NO2 can implement electrical regeneration. It can shape and regenerate signals.

Whether NQ2 can regenerate 10G signals over OTN equipment during long-haul transmission
Sure. NQ2 can implement electrical regeneration. It can shape and regenerate signals.

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