What functions does MPLS ping provide

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In MPLS, the control panel used for establishing an LSP cannot detect the failure in data forwarding of the LSP. This makes network maintenance difficult.

The MPLS ping mechanism detects LSP errors and locates faulty nodes. Similar to IP ping, MPLS ping checks LSP connectivity through MPLS Echo Request and MPLS Echo Reply messages. These messages are transmitted in User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets with the port number being 3503.

An MPLS Echo Request message carries FEC information to be detected, and is sent along the same LSP as other packets with the same FEC. In this manner, LSP connectivity is checked. In MPLS ping, an MPLS Echo Request message reaches the egress node of the LSP, and the control panel of the egress node checks whether the local LSR is the egress of the FEC.

To prevent the egress node from forwarding the received Echo Request message to other nodes, the destination address in the IP header of the Echo Request message is set to 127.0.0.1/8 (the local loopback address), and the TTL value contained in the IP header is set to 1.

Other related questions:
Does MPLS ping support fragmented packets
MPLS ping of the AR router does not support fragmented packets.

What functions do GR timers provide in the MPLS LDP view
After GR Restarter performs an active/standby switchover, the MPLS Forwarding State Holding Timer is started, which is the Neighbor-liveness timer in the MPLS LDP view. Before the Neighbor-liveness timer expires, all forwarding entries before the active/standby switchover are retained. After the Neighbor-liveness timer expires, the GR Helper deletes the forwarding entries that are not restored. When detecting that the GR Restarter performs an active/standby switchover or the LDP protocol restarts, the GR Helper starts the GR Reconnect timer. Before the GR Reconnect timer expires, the GR Helper retains all forwarding entries related to the GR Restarter. After the GR Reconnect timer expires, the GR Helper deletes the forwarding entries that are not restored. If a session is re-established between the GR Restarter and Helper before the GR Reconnect timer expires, the GR Helper deletes the GR Reconnect timer and starts the GR Recovery timer. Before the GR Recovery timer expires, the GR Helper helps the GR Restarter restore forwarding entries. After the GR Recovery timer times out, the GR Helper deletes all the GR Restarter-related forwarding entries that are not restored.

What functions does an FXS interface provide in the voice feature
Foreign exchange station (FXS) access is analog access. FXS sets up a connection between a PSTN network and a POTS phone or fax machine.

What functions does the BMU provide in the eSpace UC solution?
The BMU provides the following functions: User rights management: This function can be used to manage user accounts by type. Conference resource management: This function can be used to create, modify, query, and delete conference resources. System configuration management: This function can be used to create a connection between the BMU and the unified gateway, modify the connection configuration, and view the connection status. Corporate directory management: This function can be used to query account information in the corporate directory server. Department management: This function can be used to create, modify, delete, and query the department structure of an enterprise. Call detail record (CDR) control: This function can be used to control and manage CDRs of the unified gateway. CDR statistics and query: This function can be used to collect statistics on and query CDRs, and generate CDR reports. Enterprise self-service management: This function can be used by common enterprise users to maintain personal information and configure services. Service rights management: This function can be used by enterprise administrators to assign service rights to numbers bound to enterprise accounts.

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