An OSPF neighbor relationship between S series switches stays in the Exstart/Exchange state for a long time

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Question: How can I identify the cause when an OSPF neighbor relationship between S series switches stays in the Exstart/Exchange state for a long time?

Answer: The Exstart/Exchange state indicates that the local switch is exchanging Database Description (DD) packets with a neighbor. If the Exstart/Exchange state lasts for a long time, check the following items:
1. Whether the MTU values on the local interface and neighboring interface are the same
2. Whether the router IDs of the switches are the same (Two switches must have different router IDs.)
3. Whether the size of received packets exceeds the MTU of the interface (If yes, packets sent from the neighbor are dropped.)

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