Description of common OSPF logs and alarms on S series switches

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Description of common OSPF logs on S series switches
What do the following OSPF logs indicate?
NBR_CHG_DOWN
NBR_CHANGE_E
IF_CHG_E
The logs are described as follows:

Feb 13 2009 17:10:52 LL-NE40E-1 %%01OSPF/3/NBR_CHG_DOWN(l): Neighbor event:neighbor state changed to Down. (ProcessId=1, NeighborAddress=10.0.97.129, NeighborEvent=InactivityTimer, NeighborPreviousState=Full, NeighborCurrentState=Down)

Log description: The status of the neighbor of which the IP address is 10.0.97.129 turns from Full to Down due to InactivityTimer, which indicates that the switch does not receive a Hello keepalive packet from the neighbor within the period specified by DeadInterval.

The following causes also lead to changes in neighbor status.
KillNbr: An interface goes Down, the BFD session becomes Down, or a process is reset.
LLDown: A VLANIF, trunk, or serial port becomes Down.
SeqNumberMismatch: An error occurs when the two switches exchange routing information, or due to link transmission delay, the neighbor receives a Hello packet sent by the local switch after the neighbor relationship is interrupted and sends the local switch a DD packet. When the local switch in the Full state receives the DD packet, the event occurs.
May 10 2009 14:13:00 R13 %%01OSPF/6/NBR_CHANGE_E(l): Neighbor changes event: neighbor status changed. (ProcessId=1, NeighborAddress=100.113.114.114, NeighborEvent=1-Way, NeighborPreviousState=Full, NeighborCurrentState=Init)

Log description: The status of the neighbor of which the IP address is 100.113.114.114 turns from Full to Init due to 1-Way, which indicates that the switch receives a Hello packet from the neighbor that requires initializing the neighbor relationship.

The OSPF neighbor status on the neighbor switch turns Down, the neighbor then sends an initialization packet to the local switch, and the local switch disconnects the neighbor relationship after receiving the packet. The log is generated.

May 12 2009 14:23:58 R13 %%01OSPF/6/IF_CHG_E(l): Interface 82.2.76.3 received event InterfaceDown, interface state changed from DR to Down. (Process ID=1)

Log description: The status of the interface with the IP address 82.2.76.3 turns from DR to Down due to an interface Down event. For example, the physical interface goes Down.

The following cause also leads to changes in interface status.

NeighborChange: Generally, after the status of an interface on a broadcast network turns from DR to Down, the BDR becomes the DR.

Description of common OSPF alarms on S series switches
What do the following OSPF alarms indicate?
NBRCHG
IFCHG
The alarms are described as follows:

#Feb 2 20:49:25 2009 ONT-NE40-8-A OSPF/5/NBRCHG:OSPF TrapID1.3.6.1.2.1.14.16.2.2: Non-virtual neighbor 0.0.0.0 1082 Router 18.1.1.101 NbrRouter 172.21.59.1 state change to 8.

Alarm description: The neighbor state between the neighbor with the router ID 172.21.59.1 and local switch changes to Full.

Note:

1: Down
2: Attempt
3: Init
4: 2-Way
5: ExStart
6: Exchange
7: Loading
8: Full
#Feb 2 20:40:45 2009 ONT-NE40-8-A OSPF/5/IFCHG:OSPF TrapID1.3.6.1.2.1.14.16.2.16: Non-virtual interface 11.1.1.137 0 Router 18.1.1.101 state change to 5.

Alarm description: The status of the interface with the IP address 11.1.1.137 changes to DR.

Note:

1: Down
2: Loopback
3: Waiting
4: P2P
5: DR
6: BDR
7: DROther

Other related questions:
Description of common OSPF logs on S series switches
What do the following OSPF logs indicate? NBR_CHG_DOWN NBR_CHANGE_E IF_CHG_E The logs are described as follows: Feb 13 2009 17:10:52 LL-NE40E-1 %%01OSPF/3/NBR_CHG_DOWN(l): Neighbor event:neighbor state changed to Down. (ProcessId=1, NeighborAddress=10.0.97.129, NeighborEvent=InactivityTimer, NeighborPreviousState=Full, NeighborCurrentState=Down) Log description: The status of the neighbor of which the IP address is 10.0.97.129 turns from Full to Down due to InactivityTimer, which indicates that the switch does not receive a Hello keepalive packet from the neighbor within the period specified by DeadInterval. The following causes also lead to changes in neighbor status. KillNbr: An interface goes Down, the BFD session becomes Down, or a process is reset. LLDown: A VLANIF, trunk, or serial port becomes Down. SeqNumberMismatch: An error occurs when the two switches exchange routing information, or due to link transmission delay, the neighbor receives a Hello packet sent by the local switch after the neighbor relationship is interrupted and sends the local switch a DD packet. When the local switch in the Full state receives the DD packet, the event occurs. May 10 2009 14:13:00 R13 %%01OSPF/6/NBR_CHANGE_E(l): Neighbor changes event: neighbor status changed. (ProcessId=1, NeighborAddress=100.113.114.114, NeighborEvent=1-Way, NeighborPreviousState=Full, NeighborCurrentState=Init) Log description: The status of the neighbor of which the IP address is 100.113.114.114 turns from Full to Init due to 1-Way, which indicates that the switch receives a Hello packet from the neighbor that requires initializing the neighbor relationship. The OSPF neighbor status on the neighbor switch turns Down, the neighbor then sends an initialization packet to the local switch, and the local switch disconnects the neighbor relationship after receiving the packet. The log is generated. May 12 2009 14:23:58 R13 %%01OSPF/6/IF_CHG_E(l): Interface 82.2.76.3 received event InterfaceDown, interface state changed from DR to Down. (Process ID=1) Log description: The status of the interface with the IP address 82.2.76.3 turns from DR to Down due to an interface Down event. For example, the physical interface goes Down. The following cause also leads to changes in interface status. NeighborChange: Generally, after the status of an interface on a broadcast network turns from DR to Down, the BDR becomes the DR.

Common LSA types defined by OSPF of S series switches
Question: What are the common LSAs used in OSPF of S series switches? Why Type 6 LSAs do not exist? Answer: On S series switches supporting OSPF, OSPF uses the following types of LSAs: Type 1 LSA: router LSA Type 2 LSA: network LSA Type 3 LSA: summary LSA Type 4 LSA: ASBR-summary LSA Type 5 LSA: AS-external-LSA Type 7 LSA: NSSA AS-external-LSA OSPF packets were encoded based on Type-Length-Value (TLV). To enable other OSPF functions, you need to use LSAs of other types. Type 6 LSAs, indicating group-membership-LSAs, are used to identify multicast group members in Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF). Switches do not support Type 6 LSAs. Type 8 LSAs, indicating external-attributes-LSAs, are used to import BGP routes into OSPF processes for inter-operations and reserve information about BGP routes such as AS-Path. Switches do not support Type 8 LSAs. The Opaque LSA type is defined by RFC 2370 and can use the TLV structure. Applications such as OSPF Traffic Engineering (TE) are implemented by the Opaque LSA. The Type 9 LSA is the Opaque LSA flooding on a link. The Type 10 LSA is the Opaque LSA flooding within an area. The Type 11 LSA is the Opaque LSA flooding within an AS.

OSPF cost of S series switches
The ospf cost command can be executed on an S series switch that supports OSPF to configure the cost required for running the OSPF protocol on an interface. Application scenario: The interface cost can be automatically calculated by OSPF based on the interface bandwidth or manually configured by using the ospf cost command. If the costs and destination IP addresses of multiple routes discovered by one routing protocol are the same, load balancing can be implemented among the routes. Modify interface costs to implement load balancing as required. Configuration impact: If no interface cost is configured by using the ospf cost command, OSPF automatically calculates the interface cost based on the interface bandwidth. The calculation formula is as follows: Cost of the interface = Bandwidth reference value/Interface bandwidth. The integer of the calculated result is the cost of the interface. If the calculated result is smaller than 1, the cost value is 1. Changing the bandwidth reference value can change the cost of an interface. By default, the bandwidth reference value is 100 Mbit/s. Therefore, the default cost value of an Ethernet (100 Mbit/s) interface is 1 (100,000,000/the interface bandwidth). Example: Set the cost required by VLANIF 100 for running OSPF to 65. [HUAWEI] interface vlanif 100 [HUAWEI-Vlanif100] ospf cost 65 Set the cost required by GE0/0/1 for running OSPF to 65. [HUAWEI] interface gigabitethernet 0/0/1 [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] undo portswitch [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] ospf cost 65 Note: The cost calculated by OSPF is the cost of the route to the outbound interface of the destination network.

Descriptions and features of cards on S series switches
For hardware descriptions and features of cards on S series switches, see the Hardware Description. For the hardware description of the S9300 and S9300E, see S9300&S9300E Hardware Description. For the hardware description of the S7700, see S7700 Hardware Description. For the hardware description of the S9700, see S9700 Hardware Description. For the hardware description of the S12700, see S12700 Hardware Description. You can use Hardware Query Tool to query description and specification of specified cards.

Definition of ABR in OSPF on S series switches
Question: What is the definition of ABR? Is a device with more than two areas configured an ABR? Answer: According to RFC 2328, an OSPF backbone area contains the ABRs of all areas. That is, an ABR must belong to a backbone area. If Area 2 and Area 3 are configured on a device with no interface in a backbone area, the device is not an ABR. If two or more areas are configured on an S series switch supporting OSPF and one of these areas is a backbone area, the switch is an ABR. Not all these areas must have interfaces in the Up state.

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