Working principle of BFD for IS-IS on S Series switches


Q: What is the working principle of BFD for IS-IS?
A: Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) is a simple hello protocol and similar to the Hello protocol of IS-IS in many aspects. Two systems periodically send BFD detection packets on the session channel between them. If one system does not receive any BFD detection packet from its peer within a certain period of time, the system considers that the bidirectional channel to the neighboring system is faulty.
IS-IS, in conjunction with BFD, can fast detect neighboring status. In this manner, IS-IS devices can fast converge routes.

Other related questions:
Operating principles of S series switches
1. A switch generates a mapping between the source MAC address of a received data frame and the receiving interface, and adds the mapping to the MAC address table. 2. The switch searches for the destination MAC address of the frame in the MAC table to determine through which port to forward this frame. 3. If the destination MAC address is not found in the MAC address table, the switch forwards the frame to all its interfaces except the interface that receives the frame. The process is called flooding. The broadcast and multicast frames are forwarded to all the interfaces.

Can S series switches support BFD
S series switches' (except S1700 switches) support for BFD is described as follows: - S2700 series: not supported - S3700 series: not supported by SI series, but supported by EI and HI series - S5700 series: not supported by SI and LI series, but supported by EI and HI series - S6700 series: supported - S7700 series: supported - S9700 series: supported - S9300 series: supported - S12700 series: supported

Working principle of a DCM
After an optical signal is transmitted over a specific distance, the optical signal pulse is widened because of the positive dispersion accumulated in the system. As a result, the system transmission performance is seriously affected. A DCM is a passive device using a dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). With a DCM, signal pulses are compressed because a DCM has inherent negative dispersion that can offset the positive dispersion of the transmission fiber. According to implementation principles, DCMs are classified into two types: DCMs using a DCF fiber and DCMs using fiber Bragg grating (FBG).

What is the working principle of Streaming?
A Streaming topology can be developed and compressed into a JAR file by using Storm APIs or referring to the CQL syntax manual. After the topology is submitted to the Streaming cluster, Nimbus automatically assigns it to the Supervisor node for processing. The topology logs can be viewed on the UI through the port provided by Logviewer.

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