How can packet loss be avoided when two interfaces at both ends of a link work in auto-negotiation mode and use the half-duplex mode

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You can configure the local and remote devices to work in non-auto-negotiation mode, and set their duplex mode to full-duplex to avoid packet loss.

The configuration is as follows:
system-view
[HUAWEI] interface gigabitethernet 0/0/1
[HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] undo negotiation auto
[HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] duplex full

Other related questions:
How can two interfaces at both ends of a link determine the rate and duplex mode through auto-negotiation
The auto-negotiation function provides an information exchange method for connected devices. After auto-negotiation is enabled, devices at both ends of a physical link can exchange information and automatically choose the same working parameters. In this way, the two devices can work at the maximum rate supported by both of them. For example, a GE interface connects to an FE interface and their rate is negotiated to 100 Mbit/s, which is the maximum rate supported by both of them.

Can two electrical interfaces communicate normally when one interface is forcibly configured to work in full duplex mode and the other work in auto-negotiation mode
According to IEEE 802.3, when electrical interface A in auto-negotiation mode connects to electrical interface B that is forcibly configured to work in full duplex mode, the two interfaces can go Up. However, interface A starts to work in half-duplex mode, and interface B still works in full duplex mode. In this case, the interface working in half-duplex mode encounters error packets and packet loss due to collision of the physical link. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that you configure the interconnected electrical interfaces to work in the same mode. That is, enable auto-negotiation mode on both interfaces or configure the interfaces to work at the same speed and duplex mode by using the following commands: system-view [HUAWEI] interface gigabitethernet 0/0/1 [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] undo negotiation auto [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] speed 100 [HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] duplex full

Can Ethernet interfaces be configured to work in half duplex mode
The following interfaces can work in half-duplex mode at the rate of 10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s: FE electrical interfaces, GE electrical interfaces, and GE optical interfaces with GE copper modules installed

Can two interface communicate with each other if one interface works in auto-negotiation mode and the other works in forcible mode
This configuration is not recommended. When this configuration is used, the interface working in auto-negotiation mode changes to half-duplex state according to the auto-negotiation requirements. This reduces the network utilization efficiency and may cause other problems. It is strongly recommended that the local and remote interfaces work in the same mode. That is, they both work in auto-negotiation mode or forcible mode.

Modify attributes of interfaces on the S1728GWR-4P switch
Modify the attributes (including the auto-negotiation mode, manual setting of port rate, full duplex mode, and traffic control) of an interface on an S1728GWR-4P switch using either of the following methods: 1. Port-based configuration: a. Choose Interface > Port > General. b. Select Configure by Port Range from the Action drop-down list box. Configure parameters of interfaces within a range in a batch. c. After completing the configuration, click Apply. The configuration takes effect immediately. To check status of each interface, choose Interface > Port > General and select Show Information from the Action drop-down list box.�?2. Port list based configuration: a. Choose Interface > Port > General. b. Select Configure by Port List from the Action drop-down list box. Configure parameters of each interface. c. After completing the configuration, click Apply. The configuration takes effect immediately. To check status of each interface, choose Interface > Port > General and select Show Information from the Action drop-down list box.

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