If two switches are connected through a transport network device, how does a switch detect that the remote interface goes Down

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In V100R005C01SPC100 and later versions, you can configure EFM packet receiving timeout detection on both ends of a link. When receiving an EFM packet times out on one end, a port error-down event is triggered. Then the local end knows that the remote port goes Down.

Run the following commands to enable EFM :
system-view
[HUAWEI] efm enable
[HUAWEI] interface gigabitethernet 0/0/1
[HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] bpdu enable
[HUAWEI-GigabitEthernet0/0/1] efm timeout trigger error-down The S2700SI does not support the efm timeout trigger error-down command.

Other related questions:
An interface on a WLAN device goes Up or Down frequently
The possible causes are as follows: - The power cable is faulty or the optical fiber does not meet requirements. - The duplex modes, rates, and negotiation modes are different on the connected interfaces. - The device hardware is faulty. Perform the following operations to rectify the fault: 1. If the interface is an electrical interface or a combo interface working in electrical mode, check whether the power cable is faulty and securely connected on the local and remote devices. If the interface is an optical interface or a combo interface working in optical mode, check whether the type and length of the optical fiber, and the transmission distance supported by the optical module meet requirements. 2. Run the display interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ] command to check the rate, duplex mode, and negotiation mode of the interface. In the command, interface-type and interface-number specify the interface type and number, respectively. - Check the Negotiation field. If ENABLE is displayed, the interface works in auto-negotiation mode. If DISABLE is displayed, the interface works in non-auto-negotiation mode. The two interfaces on the local and remote devices must work in the same negotiation mode (auto-negotiation or non-auto-negotiation mode). You can run the negotiation auto command in the interface view to configure an interface to work in auto-negotiation mode. If the fault persists, configure the interface to work in non-auto-negotiation mode, and forcibly set the same rate and duplex mode for the interconnected interfaces. - Check the Speed field. If the rates of the interfaces on the local and remote devices are different, run the speed command in the interface view to set the same rate for the two interfaces. - Check the Duplex field. If the duplex modes of the interfaces on the local and remote devices are different, run the duplex command in the interface view to set the same duplex mode for the two interfaces. 3. Perform a loopback test on the AC using an Ethernet cable to connect the interface to another interface. If the interface can go Up, the WLAN is working properly. The remote device may be faulty. Contact the vendor of the remote device to rectify the fault. - If an electrical interface or a combo interface working in electrical mode cannot go Up, change it to another interface. If an optical interface or a combo interface working in optical mode cannot go Up, replace the optical module.

Whether the heartbeat interfaces of the firewall must be directly connected
It depends. The heartbeat interface can be directly connected or connected through an intermediate device, such as a switch or router. Direct connection is recommended. When the heartbeat interface is connected through an intermediate device, you need to configure the remote parameter to specify the peer heartbeat interface IP address. This is because: If you do not configure the remote parameter, the heartbeat packet sent from the NGFW is encapsulated with VRRP. VRRP packets are multicast packets, and certain switches and routers send packets of this type to themselves for processing, occupying their CPU resources. Heartbeat packets on the NGFW increase as services increase, overloading the switch and router CPUs and affecting their processing of other multicast packets (such as OSPF packets). The restrictions of the switch and router on VRRP packets also cause NGFW heartbeat packets to be discarded, causing the NGFW status to be unstable. After you configure the remote parameter, the NGFW encapsulates heartbeat packets into UDP packets. The switch and router do not send UDP packets to themselves for processing. Therefore, the switch and router performance and network services are not affected.

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