Principles of the multicast feature

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The multicast technology effectively resolves the problem of point-to-multipoint (P2MP) transmission and implements efficient P2MP data transmission on IP networks. The basic concepts of multicast are as follows:

Multicast group: an agreement between the sender and receiver. For example, a TV channel can be regarded as a multicast group.

TV station: a multicast source, which sends data to a certain TV channel.

Set-top box (STB): an Rx host. When a user chooses to watch the program of a channel, this action can be regarded as enabling the host to join a multicast group. Then, the STB displays the program of the TV channel to the user, which means that the host has received the data sent to this multicast group.

Users can turn on or turn off their STBs or switch between channels any time, which means that hosts can join or leave a multicast group dynamically.


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Other related questions:
What multicast features do CE series switches support
The right figure shows the multicast features supported by CE series switches.

Principles of HSB
The AR supports the HSB function. HSB implementation involves data synchronization and traffic switching. Data synchronization is performed to ensure consistent information on the master and backup devices when the two devices are working normally. Traffic switching is performed to ensure non-stop service forwarding when the master device fails or recovers. The principle for data synchronization is to establish active and standby channels between devices that back up each other. Session entries of the master device can be synchronized to the backup device through the channel at one time, in real time, or periodically. The principle for traffic switching is based on negotiation between the master device and the backup device using VRRP. When the master device fails, a new master device is elected based on VRRP priorities and the traffic is switched to the master device. For details, see “HSB Configuration�?in AR100&AR120&AR150&AR160&AR200&AR1200&AR2200&AR3200&AR3600 V200R008 CLI-based Configuration Guide - Reliability.

Principle of BSSID generation
Centralized BSSID management allows an AC to automatically assign a unique BSSID to each VAP. You only need to configure a carrier ID and an AC ID for an AC. Then the AC automatically assigns a BSSID to each VAP. The BSSID allows you to rapidly locate a VAP on a network. A BSSID is generated based on the AC ID, carrier ID, and WLAN ID.

OTN principles
An OTN is a network consisting of optical NEs that are connected through optical fibers. It can transmit, multiplex, route, manage, monitor, and protect client signals on optical channels. A main feature of the OTN is client independence. That is, the transmission and configuration of any digital signals are irrelevant to the features of a client. OTN has the following advantages over traditional SDH: More powerful forward error correction, Tandem connection monitoring (TCM) at more levels, transparent transmission of client signals, and scalable switching capacity.

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