How does traffic on the specific network segment go through a specific egress on the AR router

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You can configure a static route on the specific network segment to route the traffic to the specific egress.
For details, see Example for Configuring IPv4 Static Routes.

Other related questions:
Whether AR router support to add a network segment through NAT to Internet ?
Yes, it is supported.

Can a network segment be added to access the network on the AR router
A network segment can be added on the AR router.

Query of session entries with specified IP addresses
You can view session entries with specified source or destination IP addresses on the web UI or CLI. For the USG6000 series, on the web UI, choose Monitor > Session Table to view the session table. Then, click Advanced Search and enter the specified IP address in Source Address or Destination Address. For the USG2000&5000 series, on the web UI, choose Firewall > Monitor > Session Table to view the session table. Then, click Advanced Search, select Source or Destination from the IP Address drop-down list, and enter the specified IP address. For the USG2000&5000 and USG6000 series, you can run the display firewall session table source [ verbose ] { inside ip-address | global ip-address } or display firewall session table destination { inside ip-address | global ip-address command to view session information about the specified source or destination IP address.

How are subnets assigned on an AR
When many hosts are distributed on an internal network, the internal host IDs can be divided into multiple subnet IDs to facilitate management. A network can be divided into multiple subnets to conserve IP address space and support flexible IP addressing. Subnetting is implemented within the internal network. The internal network has only one network ID for the external network. When packets are transmitted from the external network to the internal network, the router on the internal network selects a route for the packets based on the subnet ID and finds the destination host. Take subnet division of an IP address in Class B as an example. The subnet mask consists of a string of continuous 1s and 0s. The digit 1 corresponds to the network ID and subnet ID fields, while the digit 0 corresponds to the host ID field. The first 5 bits of the host ID is used as the subnet ID. The subnet ID ranges from 00000 to 11111, allowing a maximum of 32 (25) subnets. Each subnet ID has a subnet mask. For example, the subnet mask of the subnet ID 11111 is 255.255.248.0. After performing an AND operation on the IP address and the subnet mask, you can obtain the network address. Subnetting reduces the available IP addresses. For example, a Class B IP address contains 65534 (216 - 2) host IDs. After 5 bits in the host ID are used as the subnet ID, there can be a maximum of 32 subnets, each having an 11-bit host ID. Each subnet has a maximum of 2046 host IDs (211 - 2, excluding the host IDs with all 1s and all 0s). Therefore, the IP address has a maximum of 65472 (32 x 2046) host IDs, 62 less than the maximum number of host IDs before subnetting.

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