Four-wave mixing

When three light waves with different lengths are simultaneously transmitted in a fiber, the interaction of quartz media creates a new light wave whose frequency is the frequency combination of the three waves. This phenomenon is called four-wave mixing (FWM).
FWM causes optical power (the energy of a photon) to transfer from one channel to another channel and has the following impact on multi-channel systems:
1. As the photon energy on the original wavelengths is impaired because of the transfer, the system BER and OSNR performance deteriorate.
2. If the newly generated light wave is the same as or overlaps one of the original light waves, severe crosstalk results.

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